Τετάρτη, Νοεμβρίου 22, 2006

Φεουδαρχία, μια μεσαιωνική νοοτροπία

Εισαγωγή

Ο J. Le Goff στο κείμενο του για την «Ιστορία των νοοτροπιών» αναρωτιέται: «Η φεουδαρχία, πάλι, τι είναι; Ένα σύνολο θεσμών, ένας τρόπος παραγωγής, ένα κοινωνικό σύστημα, ένας τύπος στρατιωτικής οργάνωσης;[1]» Ο Κ. Ράπτης αναφέρει ότι «ο όρος φεουδαλισμός χρησιμοποιήθηκε μεταγενέστερα και όχι από τους Ευρωπαίους του Μεσαίωνα για να δηλώσει ένα σύστημα σχέσεων μεταξύ των ανθρώπων σε προσωπική βάση[2]». Ο δε D. Nicholas[3] εκφράζει την άποψη ότι η φεουδαρχία δεν μπορεί να οριστεί ως «σύστημα». Αντίθετα προτιμά χρησιμοποιήσει τον όρο «φεουδαρχικές σχέσεις» ή «φεουδαρχικός δεσμός» ως πλαίσιο ρύθμισης των ανθρωπίνων σχέσεων όπου βασικό χαρακτηριστικό αποτελεί η υποτέλεια, «ο προσωπικός δεσμός ενός υποτελούς με έναν άρχοντα[4]». Νοοτροπία τι είναι; Σύμφωνα με την λεξικογραφική ανάλυση στο κείμενο του J. Le Goff η νοοτροπία «δηλώνει το συλλογικό χρωματισμό του ψυχισμού, τον ιδιαίτερο τρόπο που νιώθει και σκέφτεται ένας λαός, μία ορισμένη ομάδα ανθρώπων[5]».

Σκοπός αυτής της εργασίας είναι να παρουσιάσει μία σύνθεση μεταξύ των δύο προαναφερθέντων εννοιών προκειμένου να απαντήσει, όσον είναι δυνατόν, στο κατά πόσο η φεουδαρχία είναι μία μεσαιωνική νοοτροπία.


Χαρακτηριστικά της φεουδαρχίας

Σύστημα ή όχι η χωροδεσποτεία όρισε έναν τρόπο διακυβέρνησης κατά τον οποίο η διαδικασία «φεουδαρχοποίησης» της κοινωνίας που «εδραιώθηκε υπακούοντας τους τοπικούς ρυθμούς και τις αντίστοιχες κοινωνικο-πολιτικές, πολιτισμικές και οικονομικές πραγματικότητες[6]», διέφερε από περιοχή σε περιοχή. «Ανάλογα με τις περιοχές, μεταξύ του 10ου και 13ου αιώνα, η εξουσία που ασκούν οι χωροδεσπότες πάνω στους υποτακτικούς τους άλλοτε ενισχύεται, άλλοτε περιορίζεται κυρίως όμως αλλάζει συχνά φύση»[7].

Η φεουδαρχία διαμορφώθηκε ως πολιτικό οικοδόμημα με την αποδόμηση των ενιαίων μοναρχικών επικρατείων και την διαμόρφωση τοπικών κέντρων εξουσίας.

Βάση της φεουδαρχίας αποτέλεσε το φέουδο. Σύμφωνα με τον D. Nicholas, το φέουδο ή αλλιώς ευεργέτημα (beneficium ή bannum), ορίζεται «ως η εκχώρηση δικαιωμάτων μίας έκτασης γης από τον ιδιοκτήτη προς ένα άλλο άνθρωπο, με αντάλλαγμα κάποιες υπηρεσίες που οφείλει ο άλλος να εκτελεί για τον ιδιοκτήτη»[8].

Βασικό κοινωνικό χαρακτηριστικό της φεουδαρχίας αποτέλεσε ο τριμερής διαχωρισμός της κοινωνίας με ταυτόχρονη την εδραίωση μίας συγκεκριμένης κοινωνικής ιεραρχίας και διαστρωμάτωσης. Ο διαχωρισμός πραγματοποιήθηκε υπό την αιγίδα και καθοδήγηση της Ρωμαιοκαθολικής Εκκλησίας (ορίζεται δε ως «θεϊκός νόμος») και με βάση αυτόν καθορίζονται εξουσίες και δικαιώματα με ιεραρχικό τρόπο στα τρία κοινωνικά στρώματα: τον κλήρο (Oratores), την πολεμική αριστοκρατία (Bellatores, Πολεμιστές ιππότες, ή ευγενείς, ή χωροδεσπότες, ή φεουδάρχες) και τους πληβείους (Laboratores, δουλοπάροικοι, ελεύθεροι μικροκαλλιεργητές).

Στην πράξη υπήρχε διαστρωμάτωση σε κάθε τάξη: Δηλαδή στους γαιοκτήμονες υπήρχαν αυτοί που κατείχαν μεγαλύτερα ή μικρότερα σε έκταση τεμάχια γης και ανάλογα κατατάσσονταν. Στον κλήρο υπήρχε ο ανώτερος και ο κατώτερος και οι μοναχοί κλπ. Στους πληβείους υπήρχαν οι απόλυτα εξαρτημένοι, οι ελεύθεροι μικροκαλλιεργητές, καθώς και οι κοινότητες των ελεύθερων χωρικών.

Ο κλήρος αποτελούσε θεωρητικά το πρώτο κοινωνικό στρώμα, εξασφαλίζοντας οικονομική και κοινωνική ασυλία απαλλασσόμενος από κάθε φόρο, και λαμβάνοντας ένα μεγάλο μέρος της αγροτικής παραγωγής για την συντήρηση των μελών του (μοναστήρια που λειτουργούσαν σαν φέουδα). Αποτέλεσε κατά μία έννοια και κοσμικό φεουδάρχη μέσω της κατοχής εκτάσεων, κυρίως από δωρεές των φεουδαρχών που ευελπιστούσαν με αυτόν τον τρόπο να λάβουν άφεση αμαρτιών και την ευμενή υποστήριξη του. Συνέπειες του υπέρμετρου πλούτου του κλήρου αποτέλεσαν από την μία η αύξηση στην προέλευση και στην ένταξη στην Εκκλησία πολλών ανθρώπων με σκοπό την επιδίωξη μίας καλύτερης ζωής και από την άλλη αφενός η δημιουργία αιρετικών κινημάτων που αντιτίθονταν στον τρόπο ζωής του κλήρου, αφετέρου η ίδρυση μοναστικών ταγμάτων που επίσης έκαναν το ίδιο εντασσόμενα όμως στις τάξεις της Εκκλησίας.

Η πολεμική αριστοκρατία, ως έτερος πόλος εξουσίας, ασκούσε απόλυτο έλεγχο στην γη και στους ανθρώπους αποτελώντας ουσιαστικά την κυρίαρχη τάξη της εποχής παρά την θεωρητικά δεύτερη θέσης της στην φεουδαλική κοινωνική διαστρωμάτωση.

Βασικές συνιστώσες του τρόπου ζωής της πολεμικής αριστοκρατίας αποτελούσαν είτε οι βίαιοι περίοδοι με συνεχής πολέμους είτε οι αργόσχολοι περίοδοι τον καιρό της ειρήνης με χαρακτηριστικά την υπερκατανάλωση αγαθών, της επίδειξη πλούτου απόρροια της αποτελεσματικής εκμετάλλευσης γης και χωρικών[9].

Τρίτο στρώμα όριζαν οι πληβείοι χειρώνακτες εργαζόμενοι για την κάλυψη των αναγκών του κλήρου, τις αριστοκρατίας αλλά και των εαυτών των είτε ως ελεύθεροι χωρικοί που ζουν και εργάζονται στο χωριό σε δικά τους κτήματα και φορολογούνται από τον φεουδάρχη είτε ως δουλοπάροικοι εργαζόμενοι στο φέουδο του χωροδεσπότη τους.

Παρά το γεγονός ότι το καθεστώς της δουλοπαροικίας παρουσίαζε διαφορές τόσο με το παρελθοντικό καθεστώς της δουλείας (του οποίου εξάλλου αποτέλεσε και εξέλιξη), παρουσίαζε και διαφοροποιήσεις ως προς το είδος, το μέγεθος και το χρονικό διάστημα εκμετάλλευσης τους από τον φεουδάρχη ανάλογα με τις ανάγκες του και ανάλογα με τις φεουδαρχικές πρακτικές που επικρατούσαν από περιοχή σε περιοχή. Γενικό χαρακτηριστικό γνώρισμα των δουλοπάροικων ήταν η εργασία με την μορφή αγγαρείας δηλ. υποχρεωτικής εργασίας χωρίς αμοιβή για λογαριασμό του φεουδάρχη που μπορεί να αφορούσε συντήρηση ή κατασκευή δρόμων, οχύρωση κλπ. Τόσο οι ελεύθεροι όσο και οι δουλοπάροικοι υποχρεώνονταν σε στρατολόγηση από τους φεουδάρχες.

Σε οικονομικό επίπεδο η ελευθερία απέναντι στην υποχρέωση καταβολής φόρων που διέθεταν οι αριστοκράτες και ο κλήρος, σήμαινε αυτόματα ότι όλο το βάρος της φορολογίας τον αναλάμβαναν οι πληβείοι Οι φεουδάρχες όριζαν την φορολογία, εκμεταλλεύονταν την εργασία των υποτελών τους, ιδιοποιούνταν το αγροτικό πλεόνασμα, καθόριζαν τιμές και ποσότητες προς παραγωγή και πώληση, επέβαλαν τέλη προστασίας προς τους διερχόμενους εμπόρους.

Σε κοινωνικό επίπεδο ο φεουδάρχης πέρα από την οικονομική εξουσία διαμόρφωσε και ένα πλαίσιο διοίκησης όπου απένειμε δικαστική αλλά και πολιτική εξουσία διαμορφώνοντας και ένα εποπτικό σώμα με αρμοδιότητες την αστυνόμευση αγρών και υποτελών.

Η φεουδαρχία ως Μεσαιωνική νοοτροπία

Με βάση τα παραπάνω χαρακτηριστικά της φεουδαρχίας, ο D. Nicholas καταλήγει στο συμπέρασμα «ότι στην ύστερο-ρωμαϊκή και στη γερμανική Ευρώπη οι σχέσεις εξάρτησης θεωρούνται φυσιολογικές σε όλα τα κοινωνικά επίπεδα.[10]» Με βάση την παραπάνω θέση δύναται κάποιος να υποστηρίξει αν και κατά πόσο η φυσιολογικότητα των κοινωνικών αυτών σχέσεων αποτελεί ένα είδος νοοτροπίας υιοθετημένο από όλες τις εμπλεκόμενες κοινωνικές τάξεις, μία «μεσαιωνική ή φεουδαρχική νοοτροπία», σύμφωνα με τον ορισμό του Γάλλου ιστορικού G. Duby.

Αναλύοντας τα στοιχεία που συνηγορούν υπέρ της άποψης αυτής παρατηρούμε στάσεις και συμπεριφορές σε όλες τις κοινωνικές τάξεις.

Σύμφωνα με τον ορισμό της νοοτροπίας όπως αυτός παρουσιάζεται στο κείμενο του J.Le Goff παρατηρείται ότι η καθημερινή ζωή των ανθρώπων του μεσαίωνα, διαμορφώνεται από επιμέρους νοοτροπίες (πολιτικές, θρησκευτικές, διατροφικές, κοινωνικές) που επιδρούν και αλληλεπιδρούν στις αντίστοιχες δραστηριότητες (κοινωνικές, πολιτικές, θρησκευτικές οικονομικές).

Τέτοιες αλληλεπιδράσεις είναι εμφανείς τόσο στον έκλυτο τρόπο ζωής της πολεμικής αριστοκρατίας που υιοθετήθηκε από τον ανώτερο κλήρο όσο και στην υιοθέτηση της θρησκευτικής νοοτροπίας της καθολικής εκκλησίας από τους φεουδάρχες σταυροφόρους. Αποκτώντας χωροδεσποτικά προνόμια και φέουδα, ο ανώτερος κλήρος υιοθέτησε και την νοοτροπία της έκλυτης ζωής «ως καταναλωτές ειδών πολυτελείας[11]» ενώ η πολεμική αριστοκρατία βρίσκει τρόπο να εκφράσει την πολεμική της τάση με την εξαγωγή της βίας προς τον ισλαμικό κόσμο.

Σε αντίθεση με τον ανώτατο κλήρο ο μοναχισμός διαμόρφωσε ένα μοντέλο λειτουργίας «που διατάσσεται γύρω από τις έννοιες της μοναστικής ζωής και του ασκητισμού[12]». Με αυτό τον τρόπο εκφράζεται μία θρησκευτική νοοτροπία στην οποία κατά τον Marc Bloch εντοπίζονται στοιχεία, αντιλήψεις, πρακτικές που έχουν ληφθεί από παλαιότερες θρησκείες.

Η θρησκευτική νοοτροπία διαποτίζει και την πολιτική σκέψη και διακυβέρνησης της εποχής ορίζοντας μία πολιτική νοοτροπία. Ο J. Le Goff αναφέρεται τόσο στο τελετουργικό διακυβέρνησης («[…] τα διακριτικά της εξουσίας, το προνόμιο της εισόδου στα βασιλικά διαμερίσματα, από όλα αυτά βγάζουν στην επιφάνεια μία μοναρχική μυστική θρησκεία, μία πολιτική νοοτροπία[13]») όσο και στις πολιτικές αποφάσεις ηγετών του μεσαίωνα που εμπνέονται ή επηρεάζονται από το Θείο. Η θρησκευτική νοοτροπία απλώνεται και πάνω από την καθημερινή ζωή όλων των ανθρώπων της εποχής, όταν θεωρούν παραδείγματος χάριν την πανούκλα θεία τιμωρία για τις αμαρτίες που έχουν διαπράξει, νοοτροπία που έχει ριζώσει μέσα από την ασυνείδητη κατά τον J. Le Goff διδασκαλία των Χριστιανών διανοητών.

Ο ιστορικός G. Duby αναφερόμενος στο βασικό χαρακτηριστικό της φεουδαρχίας, την σχέση υποτέλειας, αναφέρει ότι «η φεουδαρχική αντίληψη περί υπηρεσίας είναι μία νοοτροπία». Ο φεουδάρχης θεωρεί δεδομένη την σχέση υποτέλειας και εκμετάλλευσης ως συνέπεια του δεσμού που έχει συνάψει με τον υποτελή και αυτή ακριβώς η στάση δεν καθορίζεται από ένα πλαίσιο αλλά είναι μία νοοτροπία. Εξάλλου βασικά γνωρίσματα της φεουδαρχικής κοινωνίας όπως η επιβολή φορολογίας, η παροχή προστασίας και η απονομή δικαιοσύνης αποτελούσαν εθιμικούς διακανονισμούς.

Από την άλλη πλευρά και ενάντια στην νοοτροπία της παρασιτικής εκμετάλλευσης των πληβείων, οι φεουδάρχες ανέλαβαν πρωτοβουλίες όπως η εισαγωγή του χρήματος, η τεχνολογική βελτίωση «που επέτρεψαν την εξάπλωση των ανθρωπίνων κοινοτήτων και των καλλιεργούμενων εκτάσεων[14]».

Η οικονομική ανάπτυξη στηρίχθηκε και στην βελτίωση των αγροτικών τεχνικών (πχ βελτίωση του άροτρου) και εργαλείων που προκάλεσε κοινωνιολογικές ανακατατάξεις. Σαν συνέπεια της βελτίωσης των καλλιεργητικών μεθόδων αναπτύχθηκαν νέες μορφές καλλιέργειας, κατασκευάσθηκαν μύλοι για την παρασκευή ψωμιού με συνέπεια την βελτίωση των συνθηκών διατροφής.

Συνέπεια της βελτίωσης των καλλιεργητικών μεθόδων και της διείσδυσης της χρηματικής οικονομίας αποτέλεσαν η ανάπτυξη των πόλεων, η διαμόρφωση και ισχυροποίηση νέων επαγγελματικών ομάδων όπως οι τεχνίτες και οι έμποροι προάγγελοι της αστικής τάξης.

Συμβολή και επάρκεια της ιστορίας των νοοτροπιών.

Αν θεωρηθεί ότι οι Σταυροφορίες στηρίζονται σε θρησκευτική νοοτροπία και η βάση της φεουδαρχίας, δηλ. η υποτέλεια ορίζει μία πολιτική νοοτροπία, είναι σε θέση κάποιος να αποδεχθεί ότι η ιστορία των νοοτροπιών μπορεί να συμβάλει και σίγουρα επαρκεί να εξηγήσει στάσεις και συμπεριφορές τον Μεσαίωνα. Ο ιστορικός δεν καταγράφει στεγνά και αποστειρωμένα τα γεγονότα, απαριθμεί μάχες, μιλά για νόμους και πολιτικές πράξεις, εκθειάζει «τους από μηχανής θεούς της παλαιάς ιστορίας: τη θεία Πρόνοια και τους μεγάλους άνδρες[15]». Ο σύγχρονος ιστορικός στρέφεται στην καθημερινότητα προσπαθώντας να ερμηνεύσει από ποικίλες μεριές (κοινωνικά, ψυχολογικά, εθνολογικά) κάθε τεκμήριο της (πχ. «ένα διοικητικής ή φορολογικής φύσης έγγραφο ή ένα κατάστιχο βασιλικών εσόδων[16]»), προκειμένου να ανασυνθέσει την ιστορική εποχή. Η σύνθεση αυτή απαιτεί πλέον και σύνθεση επιστημονικών γνώσεων. Ο ιστορικός έρχεται σε επαφή και λαμβάνει στοιχεία από άλλες ανθρωπιστικές επιστήμες τα οποία αξιοποιεί. Χρειάζεται την πληροφορία που του παρέχει ο εθνολόγος που «ξεκινά από την μελέτη των λατρευτικών τυπικών και τελετουργικών πραχτικών και ανέρχεται προς τις πεποιθήσεις και τα συστήματα αξιών[17]», για να κατανοήσει το πολιτικό και θρησκευτικό σύστημα διακυβέρνησης. Χρειάζεται την πληροφορία ενός ανθρωπολόγου προκειμένου να αντιληφθεί «την ψυχολογία των απλοϊκών ανθρώπων, την νοοτροπία του αγιογράφου.[18]» Χρειάζεται να λειτουργήσει ως κοινωνικός ψυχολόγος ώστε να μπορεί να εξηγήσει πολιτικές αποφάσεις πίσω από στάσεις και συμπεριφορές. Διότι για να καταγράψει τις ιδέες, τα έθιμα, τα ήθη, τις παραδόσεις ως νοητικών αναπαραστάσεων των κοινωνιών, θα πρέπει να στηριχθεί αφενός στα ιστορικά τεκμήρια αλλά κυρίως στις νοοτροπίες των ανθρώπων της κάθε εποχής. Με βάση τα παραπάνω δύναται κάποιος να αποδεχθεί ότι επαρκεί η ιστορία των νοοτροπιών στο να συμβάλει στην κατανόηση της φεουδαρχίας.


Επίλογος

Η φεουδαρχία ως πολιτικό , κοινωνικό και οικονομικό σύστημα καθορίστηκε από ένα σύνολο χαρακτηριστικών γνωρισμάτων όπως οι σχέσεις υποτέλειας, η δουλοπαροικία, ο τριμερής διαχωρισμός. Η προσέγγιση της φεουδαρχίας υπό το πρίσμα της ιστορίας των νοοτροπιών συμβάλει σε σημαντικό βαθμό στην υιοθέτηση της άποψης ότι η φεουδαρχία είναι μία μεσαιωνική νοοτροπία. Οι ιστορικοί της νοοτροπίας θωρώντας ως πηγή και το παραμικρό ιστορικό τεκμήριο, αξιοποιώντας επιστημονικές μεθόδους από άλλες ανθρωπιστικές επιστήμες καλούνται να εξηγήσουν το σύνολο των σχέσεων, συμπεριφορών, εθίμων, παραδόσεων ως αποτέλεσμα διαμορφωμένων νοοτροπιών. Προσφέροντας μία διαφορετική προσέγγιση από την γραμμικότητα της ποσοτικής ιστορίας, η ιστορία των νοοτροπιών προσφέρει δυνατότητες ερμηνείας του ιστορικού παρελθόντος ακόμα και στην παραμικρή λεπτομέρεια.


Βιβλιογραφία

Γαγανάκης Κώστας, Κοινωνική και Οικονομική Ιστορία της Ευρώπης, ΕΑΠ, Πάτρα 1999.

Ράπτης Κώστας, Γενική Ιστορία της Ευρώπης από τον 6ο αιώνα έως και τον 18ο αιώνα, Τόμος Α’, ΕΑΠ, Πάτρα 1999.

Berstein Serge, Milza Piere., Ιστορία της Ευρώπης, Τόμος Α’, Εκδόσεις Αλεξάνδρεια, Αθήνα 1997.

Le Goff Jacques, Nora Pierre., Το έργο της Ιστορίας, Εκδόσεις Ράπα, Αθήνα 1975.

Nicholas David, Η εξέλιξη του Μεσαιωνικού κόσμου, ΜΙΕΤ, Αθήνα 2004.

North David, Δομή και μεταβολές στην Οικονομική Ιστορία, Εκδόσεις Κριτική, Αθήνα 2000.



[1] Le Goff J., Nora P., Το έργο της Ιστορίας, Εκδόσεις Ράππα, Αθήνα 1975, σ.317

[2] Ράπτης Κ., Γενική Ιστορία της Ευρώπης, Τόμος Α, Εκδόσεις ΕΑΠ, Πάτρα 1999, σ. 72.

[3] Nicholas D., H εξέλιξη του Μεσαιωνικού Κόσμου, Εκδόσεις ΜΙΕΤ, Αθήνα 2004, σ. 216-217

[4] Nicholas, ο.π

[5] Le Goff J., Nora P., σ.324

[6] Γαγανάκης, ο.π.

[7] Berstein, Milza, Ιστορία της Ευρώπης, Τόμος Α, Εκδόσεις Αλεξάνδρεια, Αθήνα 1997,σ.116

[8] Nicholas D., σ. 220

[9] Berstein S.,Milza P, σ. 108

[10] Nicholas, σ.219

[11] Γαγανάκης, σ. 43

[12] Le Goff J., Nora P., σ.330

[13] Le Goff J., Nora P., σ.318

[14] Γαγανάκης, σ. 60

[15] Le Goff J., Nora P., σ.320

[16] Le Goff J., Nora P., σ.327

[17] Le Goff J., Nora P., σ.318

[18] Le Goff J., Nora P., ο.π

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